Salsalate is part of a class of naturally occurring chemicals known as salicylates, which are among the oldest prescribed medicinal anti-inflammatories . The most common salicylate is acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (coined Aspirin by Bayer in 1899) and its main biochemical function is the reduction of inflammation and fever via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX) . Over the last century, it has been suggested that salicylates could have other medicinal benefits, specifically in the treatment of mild cases of diabetes [3, 4, 7]. Aspirin has been administered to patients with pre-diabetes/obesity in order to hinder the evolution of the disease. Unfortunately, inhibition of COX by Aspirin results in abnormalities in bleeding, platelet aggregation and gastric regulation [8, 9]. In retribution, medical practitioners have looked to salsalate  to provide treatment to diabetes patients as it has similar anti-inflammatory properties to Aspirin yet has been shown to be significantly less gut damaging . To maximize the bioavailability of the drug and promote effective therapy, nano-crystallization of salsalate clusters must be performed to reduce their median particle size below one micron .
Cement, and its paved derivative, concrete, is a widely-consumed material in any modern society: residential walkways, recreational parks and building construction are just some of the many uses of cement. This year, upwards of 80 million metric tons of cement will be processed in the United States alone .
As a building and support material, the two most important qualities of cement are its compressive strength (the capability to withstand an inward load) and its workability (the propensity of the cement paste to be deformable and fluidized). Unfortunately, these two qualities are not independent of each other.
Liquids exposed to high-intensity ultrasound can undergo acoustic cavitation. This phenomenon can typically be seen as a cloud of bubbles forming in the vicinity of the ultrasonic source (e.g., ultrasonic horn) and heard as an intense hissing noise. Cavitation is the formation of low-pressure voids (a.k.a., vacuum bubbles or cavities) in the liquid, which grow, briefly oscillate and then asymmetrically implode with great intensity.
Are you introducing ultrasound as a new technological solution for your liquid processing application? If so, some terms used in the ultrasonic industry may be unfamiliar. With this in mind, we are launching a series of blog posts that will cover the most common ultrasonic equipment and processing-related terminology.
This first post will focus on the terms used to describe the main components of an Industrial Sonomechanics (ISM) ultrasonic liquid processor and show you how these components work together.