Salsalate is part of a class of naturally occurring chemicals known as salicylates, which are among the oldest prescribed medicinal anti-inflammatories . The most common salicylate is acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (coined Aspirin by Bayer in 1899) and its main biochemical function is the reduction of inflammation and fever via the inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX) . Over the last century, it has been suggested that salicylates could have other medicinal benefits, specifically in the treatment of mild cases of diabetes [3, 4, 7]. Aspirin has been administered to patients with pre-diabetes/obesity in order to hinder the evolution of the disease. Unfortunately, inhibition of COX by Aspirin results in abnormalities in bleeding, platelet aggregation and gastric regulation [8, 9]. In retribution, medical practitioners have looked to salsalate  to provide treatment to diabetes patients as it has similar anti-inflammatory properties to Aspirin yet has been shown to be significantly less gut damaging . To maximize the bioavailability of the drug and promote effective therapy, nano-crystallization of salsalate clusters must be performed to reduce their median particle size below one micron .
Industrial Sonomechanics (ISM) is pleased to announce the recent publication of a book entitled "Ultrasound: Advances in Food Processing and Preservation," edited by Dr. Daniela Bermudez-Aguirre (Academic Press, 2017). The book provides an extensive overview of the potential of ultrasound technology to drive innovation in the field of food processing and preservation, and features a chapter by ISM's co-founder, President and Chief Scientific Officer, Dr. Alexey Peshkovsky. This chapter, entitled "From Research to Production: Overcoming Scale-Up Limitations of Ultrasonic Processing," explains how ultrasonic processing can be directly scaled up from laboratory to production environments while maintaining reproducible, high-quality results.
There are many ways to administer medical and recreational cannabis, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. One common feature, however, is that only a certain (generally small) percentage of the consumed cannabinoid content, defined as "bioavailability", can be absorbed into the bloodstream with each method. This stems from the fact that cannabinoids are not water-soluble and, therefore, not readily compatible with the predominantly water-based human body. Water-soluble compounds such as ethanol, on the other hand, can be quickly and efficiently delivered to the bloodstream via a variety of alcoholic beverages, eliminating the need for other delivery methods. Wouldn't it be great if the same could be done with cannabis?
Last month, Industrial Sonomechanics (ISM) had a chance to participate in the Spring 2017 Marijuana Business Conference & Expo at the Gaylord National Resort & Convention Center near Washington, D.C. With its increased participation (thousands attending and 275 exhibitors on the expo floor), the conference provided a clear indication of the cannabis industry's accelerated growth.
ISM exhibited its laboratory, bench, and industrial-scale ultrasonic processors and additive packages used for the production of nanoemulsions of cannabis extracts, also known as "water-soluble CBD and THC". A wide variety of topics related to ultrasonic emulsification were covered by our presenters:
- Reasons for low and unpredictable bioavailability profiles of traditional cannabis products;
- Challenges of delivering accurate cannabinoid doses by common administration methods, such as smoking, vaping, dabbing, edibles, sublingual, etc.;
- Advantages of turning cannabis extracts into water-compatible nanoemulsions: increased potency, accelerated onset of action, simplified administration and guaranteed dosing accuracy;
- Formulation options: translucent versus milky nanoemulsions, flavour, stability, etc.
We are happy to announce that ISM will participate in the Spring 2017 Marijuana Business Conference & Expo in Washington DC. The conference will take place on May 16 - 19, 2017 at the Gaylord National Harbor Hotel. If you are interested in making cannabis oil nanoemulsions, also known as water-soluble CBD and THC, please come by and see our ultrasonic equipment at booth 1223!
This is a second article in the series on the principles of formulating water-compatible cannabis extracts and isolates, also known as water-soluble CBD and THC. The first article showed multiple advantages of nanoemulsions over the other two water-compatible formulation classes: microemulsions and liposomes. Here I will demonstrate the importance of using a carrier oil in your cannabis extract or isolate nanoemulsion. I will also explain how to select the proper carrier oil among the available choices.
The BSP-1200 bench-scale ultrasonic liquid processor is a Barbell Horn Ultrasonic Technology (BHUT)-based system, designed for process optimization and medium-scale production. It can be implemented in two processing modes: flow-through and batch. When a large amount of material needs to be processed, the former is preferable because it results in a much higher processing capacity, improved ultrasonic exposure uniformity, and better temperature control.
When configured in the flow-through mode, the processor is supplied with four main components: a 1,200 W ultrasonic Generator, a water-cooled piezoelectric Transducer, a Barbell Horn, and a Reactor Chamber (flow cell). Although it is supplied mostly pre-assembled and ready-to-use, knowing how to put it together can be helpful. In this blog post, we provide step-by-step assembly instructions for the BSP-1200 configured in the flow-through mode.
Industrial Sonomechanics is launching a series of blog posts dedicated to describing the main principles of developing water-compatible cannabis extract formulations, also known as water-soluble CBD and THC. As explained in our earlier blog post, since medical marijuana extracts are oils and, as such, not soluble in water, they have to be specially formulated in order to become water-compatible and acquire the appearance of being water-soluble. There are three formulation classes that can provide this property: microemulsions, liposomes and nanoemulsions.
For centuries, candles have been utilized for light, decoration, religious ceremonies and much more. The production of modern candles is a complex process, susceptible to several hurdles. Their main constituent, paraffin wax — which is desirable for its relatively low melting point of ~60°C  — experiences volatile changes in cost as it is a by-product of crude oil production . Additionally, during cooling, different parts of the jar candle solidify at different rates due to low heat conduction throughout the wax. This leads to uneven settling (referred to as surface undulation), which forms a cavity in the center of the candle and requires a post-process void-filling operation (see Figure 1).
The cannabis (marijuana, hemp) plant has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. In addition to terpenes and flavonoids, over 100 types of therapeutically active compounds known as cannabinoids have been identified in these plants . The two most important and well-known cannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) . Cannabinoids have the ability to directly and/or indirectly affect receptors in our cells because they mimic endocannabinoids produced by our own bodies endogenously, for example, in response to injury .